On settler ideologies, their activation, and their impact: Chris G. Sibley, Danny Osborne, ‘Ideology and Post-Colonial Society’, Political Psychology, Political Psychology Supplement: Advances in Political Psychology, 37, 2016, pp. 115-161


Abstract: The Dark Duo Model of Post-Colonial Ideology states that post-colonial nations possess a specific set of sociostructural conditions that foster a unique pair of complementary ideologies responsible for maintaining the status quo. These are the ideologies of Historical Negation and Symbolic Exclusion. Together, these ideologies articulate a pair of discourses that draw upon culturally sanctioned repertoires to effectively resolve the collective dissonance created by past—and present—injustices experienced by Indigenous peoples. Historical Negation and Symbolic Exclusion form a joint ideological system that legitimizes inequality in two critical social domains common to all post-colonial societies: one domain relating to resource allocations for Indigenous peoples and the other domain relating to representation and membership in the nation’s identity. In the current article, we review and integrate over 10 years of research on post-colonial intergroup relations in New Zealand, leading up to a formal presentation of the Dark Duo Model. Our work in this area indicates that Historical Negation and Symbolic Exclusion are psychometrically distinct constructs that are stable over time. A meta-analytic review of 13 independent samples (N = 18,903) shows that both ideologies are independently associated with Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism among members of the dominant (European) group in New Zealand. We review and explain why there are systematic ethnic group differences in support for these dual ideologies and why positive intergroup contact with the dominant group attenuates resistance to Symbolic Exclusion amongst Māori (the Indigenous peoples). We also show that Historical Negation and Symbolic Exclusion exert powerful unique effects on voter sentiment and support for different social policies relating to biculturalism and that these ideologies mediate the effects of Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism on various sociopolitical attitudes. Our Dark Duo Model is a context-specific extension of the Dual-Process Model of Ideology and Prejudice that explains how specific post-colonial ideologies are generated and used to maintain social inequalities that systematically disadvantage Indigenous peoples.

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