Abstract: This dissertation examines how settlers came to terms with the landscape and the peoples in the areas in which they were based, from the last third of the nineteenth century to 1945. Focusing on museums and art galleries in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Canada, as well as on the scientists, philanthropists, and artists who gravitated around them, it develops a comparative and connected understanding of these institutions. More largely, it offers a characterisation of the intellectual underpinnings of settler colonialism in what historians label the ‘British world.’ This dissertation makes two arguments. Firstly that settler colonialism, as violent as it was and remains, is also an intellectual process that requires the aesthetic and cognitive appropriation of space and peoples. Secondly, that the development of proto-nationalist sentiments across Britain’s settler colonies is best understood in relation to these appropriative practices. The first two chapters focus on the early development of colonial museums and galleries. They highlight how they were central to the emergence of developmentalist visions of nature and of imperially-minded historical sensibilities. The second chapter concludes with a consideration of Indigenous relationships with museums as examples of historical reinscribing. The third and fourth chapters complicate the boundaries of the ‘British world’. They consider the involvement of the Carnegie Corporation of New York in museum practices across the dominions during the interwar period. Fears of white degeneration pushed the Corporation to invest in colonial museums as a means to uplift settler populations. This set the table for future interconnections, notably in the realm of the fine arts. As Chapter Four highlights, Carnegie money brought about an intra-Empire Commonwealth exchange of exhibitions that sought to buttress national art schools inspired by the landscape paintings of the Canadian Group of Seven. The final chapter emphasises the incorporation of Indigenous peoples and their material culture within settler nationalisms. It compares and connects the careers and ideas of the South African Irma Stern, the Canadian Emily Carr, and the Australian Margaret Preston. It argues that the three absorbed and shared museum and anthropologically-inflected conceptions of the Other.


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Abstract: Approximately 7000 Scandinavians, Germans, Poles and other continental European settlers arrived in New Zealand from 1871 to 1876 as part of the assisted immigration scheme promoted by politician Julius Vogel. The continental Europeans included many family groups and became a small but significant minority among the Pākehā population of nineteenth century New Zealand. Many of these European settlers clustered in rural communities around the country, including Norwegian and Danish communities in Hawkes Bay and the Wairarapa, along with German and Polish communities in Canterbury, Otago and Taranaki. Some of these communities are well known and have been studied in isolation, and others have been neglected by historians. This project includes a quantitative study of the continental European migrations of the 1870s and examines key settler communities that continental Europeans, particularly Scandinavians Germans and Poles, formed in nineteenth century New Zealand. It also details the mechanisms of the Vogel assisted immigration scheme by examining voluminous correspondence, reports and memos collected in the Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. A relational database of ten tables, created for this project, contains information from a range of sources, including passenger records in New Zealand and Europe, New Zealand naturalisation registers and probates. Newspaper information and family histories provided additional biographical details for continental European immigrants. Passenger lists in New Zealand and Hamburg were used to analyse the demographics of the migrants and their diverse European origins. A number of European settler communities were selected, and New Zealand naturalisation records were used to identify and profile European born settlers and their lives in New Zealand. These individuals were matched with passenger records and probate records to build a profile of European settlers in each of these communities. This study revealed that the European assisted immigrants of the 1870s left from specific regions in their countries of origin, and in many cases specific villages, and local clusters of migration were identified. The examination of a number of the rural communities formed by European migrants in New Zealand revealed that most became small farmers and achieved a modest level of wealth. A close study of the migrants in these clusters revealed many clusters were more diverse than previously thought, with a range of European ethnicities living alongside each other. Despite initial hurdles these European migrants found it easy to integrate into the dominant Pākehā culture of nineteenth century New Zealand, and by the early twentieth century most of the distinctly European communities had dispersed or blended into the wider population.



Abstract: Using poststructural tools of analysis, this thesis analyzes how Saskatchewan’s grade four social studies curriculum (2010) continues to preserve White settler innocence and normalize Indigenous dispossession despite its intent to be inclusive of Indigenous content and knowledge. Conducted through an anti-colonial lens, this research investigates the notion that provincially mandated moves to include Indigenous content and knowledge in provincial curriculum, driven in part by dominant national discourses of reconciliation, are enough to confront and unsettle Canada’s racist, colonial structures and practices which produce and naturalize the racialization, dispossession and dislocation of Indigenous peoples while preserving White settlers as innocent. Using poststructural methods of analysis, this study aims to determine the productive, identitymaking potential of the national discourse found within the outcomes and indicators of the Saskatchewan grade four social studies curriculum document. The interpretation of the curricular discourse, framed by theories of settler colonialism and Whiteness studies, finds that wellintended attempts to include Indigenous perspectives and knowledge continue replicate and reinforce racist, colonial strategies that preserve Canada’s racial hierarchy. By circulating
discourses which naturalize White settler belonging; distort Indigenous sovereignty; maintain Indigenous Otherness; regulate Indigenous exteriority through recognition; and attempt to maintain colourblind race neutrality, this thesis demonstrates how the curriculum effectively functions to exalt (Thobani, 2007) White settler subjectivity and secure the settler state. The implications of this research suggest that education systems and teachers must move beyond a reliance on models of Indigenous inclusion to promote racial equity and therefore must receive an adequate, ongoing pre-practice and professional education in identifying and challenging ongoing forms racism and colonialism.


Abstract: Across the North American continent, white supremacy is often taken for granted as a foregone conclusion by the late nineteenth century. Recently, however, scholars of the Greater Reconstruction, Indigenous history, Latinx history, U.S.-Mexico Borderlands history, and historians of capitalism have challenged this assumption by deconstructing narratives that portray white European American hegemony as inevitable. My research on settler colonialism adds to the discussion of the establishment of white supremacy in the West by analyzing the evolution of white supremacy in New Mexico over time. It argues that the Spanish, Mexican, and American settler colonial regimes actively used white supremacy as a tool to organize all racial categories from the sixteenth to twentieth centuries to ensure Spanish-European and European-American hegemony. This thesis does not seek to replicate or dictate the order of racial hierarchies in New Mexico. It rejects a hierarchy of suffering and recognizes that the ideological categorization of race does not always translate onto lived experiences. Rather, it seeks to study the social construct of white supremacy over time in New Mexico. It adopts a social-theoretical approach to white supremacy to explain how racism was structured at various historical stages and to prove that the establishment of white supremacy as the overarching social, political, and legal authority was not an inevitable result of the expansion of U.S. settler colonialism in the nineteenth century. As such, this thesis will explore the changing and often contradictory nature of white supremacy—and whiteness—over time, beginning with Spanish settler colonialism in New Spain and ending with American settler colonialism in New Mexico, while refusing a definitive hierarchical ranking of racial categories. In analyzing the Casta System and settler colonial-Indian frontier relations, the following pages demonstrate the Spanish use of white supremacy to ensure European dominance during Spanish and Mexican settler colonialism. This thesis concludes with an overview of American domination and the subsequent extension of settler colonialism and white European-American white superiority in New Mexico by the end of the nineteenth century.





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