Abstract: Indigenous hyperincarceration continues in settler-colonial states, bearing a pressing and seemingly entrenched human rights issue. In Australia, nearly 80% of Indigenous men receive a court order by their 24th birthday; 18.5% are imprisoned (31.7% and 1.5% for non-Indigenous men). We demonstrate how invader masculinities and settler-colonial perceptions of Indigenous masculinities criminalise Indigenous peoples. However, we argue that supporting Indigenous masculinities grounded in Indigenous perspectives is one way to decolonise criminology and inform decarceration processes. We present the chapter in three parts; first we detail how – since first contact – Indigenous peoples have been subjected to a separate system of extensive and pervasive social control. Institutional control inside and outside of prison is inseparable, forming a carceral archipelago. In part two, we demonstrate how this carceral archipelago reinforces ideals of hegemonic masculinity. Hierarchal power dynamics are gendered and raced, where Indigenous men and women are considered lesser status. In part three, we detail the counter narrative of resistance to settler-colonial stereotypes of Indigenous masculinities. Here, the predominant view eradicates prisons from Indigenous identities and masculinities, and instead empower Indigenous men within themselves, their families, and their communities. Overall, reinforcing the positive roles of Indigenous men and masculinities can disrupt the criminalisation of Indigenous peoples.

Abstract: While the HBO show Westworld (2016–present, created by Lisa Joy and Jonathan Nolan) has gained much critical attention for its byzantine plotting and philosophical conundrums, the present discussion focuses instead on the basic premise on which the titular park operates, namely that the algorithms that govern human behavior can be disclosed by studying how human beings behave toward image beings. Under the guise of a tactile experience of a make-believe past, the park attractions clandestinely function as a large behavioral sensor, extracting actionable data from the guests who reveal their inner drives when interacting with the host environment. Taking its cue from the opening titles of the first season, the argument pivots on the master trope of the series: the machine-readable scroll of perforated paper that commands the automated performance of the player piano. This motif is examined through a double-pronged approach that aligns the anthropology of images developed by Hans Belting, which understands the relation between humans and images as the interactions between “hosts” and “guests,” with the archaeology of media and its dominant concern to uncover the prehistory of the automated control systems of the computer age. While Westworld proffers a timely allegory of biopolitical capture along the digital frontier, the show ultimately testifies to the failure to constructively engage with the precarious relation between hosts and guests that to an equal extent defines our contemporary moment. The initial problem raised by Westworld, the ethics of killing virtual beings, thus gives rise to a broader historical inquiry that concerns the inability of human societies to face the past and deal with the images they inherit.

Settler schooling: Sean Carleton, Lessons in Legitimacy: Colonialism, Capitalism, and the Rise of State Schooling in British Columbia, UBC Press, 2022


Abstract: In this thesis, I explore what is required to address settler colonialism and support Indigenous sovereignty in the environmental law context, and assess the extent to which ecologically-focused legal theories or ELTs align with what is required. I conclude that a rebalancing of power and authority is required towards nation-to-nation, legally pluralistic spaces that centre Indigenous sovereignty and the revitalization of Indigenous legal paradigms. In these spaces, settler-Indigenous legal paradigms co-exist as equals in mutually respectful and reciprocal relationships. To create such spaces requires several inter-related efforts on behalf of settlers, including: i) efforts to dismantle settler colonialism in settler legal paradigms and support the revitalization of Indigenous legal paradigms, ii) restitution and reparations for past and ongoing harms, and iii) efforts to engage and interact with Indigenous peoples and their legal paradigms in a manner that reflects the legally pluralistic vision set out herein. I conclude that ELTs mostly advocate for transformation within the settler legal paradigm, failing to challenge the state’s source of law-generating authority over Indigenous peoples and their lands. They also generally fail to centre and support Indigenous sovereignty and the revitalization of Indigenous legal paradigms. There is also virtually no mention of the need for restitution or reparations, or consideration of the need for relationship building and dialogue with Indigenous peoples and their legal paradigms. As a result, ELTs mostly maintain the settler colonial status quo. Nonetheless, there are some leading examples that demonstrate the possibility of ELTs being developed in a decolonized and pluralistic manner that addresses settler colonialism and supports the revitalization of Indigenous legal paradigms. These examples also demonstrate efforts towards creating respectful and reciprocal relationships and dialogue where settler and Indigenous scholars and their legal paradigms co-exist as equals. Moving forward, ELTs should be grounded in problematizing and challenging settler colonialism and supporting Indigenous sovereignty and legal revitalization. Settler ELT scholars should also engage in concerted efforts to build relationships of mutual respect and reciprocity with Indigenous colleagues, where their needs are centred. Such relationship building can enable meaningful cross-legal dialogue and the co-creation of collaborative, decolonized and pluralistic spaces.

Abstract: This thesis proposes that there are intersections between settler colonialism, disability, and education, that can help to clarify how and why national recognition of violence against Indigenous communities is a central project of the nation-state. For this reason, the exacerbating impacts of ableism and (settler) colonialism are studied for their impact on schooling and education in Canada. Using Critical Discourse Analysis as a method of inquiry, the Ontario First Nations Special Education Review Report is analyzed for its relation to history, pedagogy, and colonialism. The report is useful to investigation of the connection between current and historical conceptualizations of disability and the history/present of settler colonialism within the Canadian nation-state. The thesis is framed through the understanding that ableism and colonialism, as they appear in “special education”, are intertwined forces which are often founded upon white supremacy and framed through Eurocentric discourse. As such, this thesis engages the fields of Critical Disability Studies, Settler Colonialism, Indigenous Studies, and Education, to describe how special education is informed by colonial constructs of schooling. Conclusions drawn through applying these theories to a reading of the Ontario First Nations Special Education Review Report suggested that there is an apprehension to adopt disability discourse because of the history of colonialism and the ongoing presence of Debility. As well, there is an immediate need to address the systemic issues regarding funding, resource access, and self-determination because of the historical and continued injustices that occur within First Nations education.

Can it even be a question? Yitzhak Benbaji, ‘Is Egalitarian Zionism Wrongful Colonialism?’ Philosophia, 2022


Comparing settler colonial environments: Tom Lynch, Outback and Out West: The Settler-Colonial Environmental Imaginary, University of Nebraska Press, 2022


The reconciliation of one Asian settler society: Scott E. SimonJolan HsiehPeter Kang (eds), Indigenous Reconciliation in Contemporary Taiwan: From Stigma to Hope, Routledge, 2023



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